Neutral Earthing Resistors or Reactors (including resonant reactances) Application Guide
||For the control of earth fault currents in power systems operating
at 33kV or less
(Issue 3 - 2010)
SWER HV Power Lines
the control of interference to telecommunication circuits (1999)
This guide sets out the conditions and procedures which should be
used for the planning, design, construction, and extension of single
wire earth return (SWER) high voltage power lines, operating at 6.35kV
above earth, so that any voltages induced on nearby
telecommunication lines are not hazardous to telecommunication
users, staff or plant, and do not cause excessive noise.
SWER power lines are a special case of power lines, in that they
carry fully and CONTINUOUSLY unbalanced currents and voltages (with
respect to earth). Consequently, the much lower "continuous" hazard
voltage limit (60Vrms) and noise voltage limit (0.5V
phosphometrically weighted) apply.
Examples of SWER exposure calculations for determining induced
voltage levels on nearby telecommunication circuits are included.
the control of EPR and for the limitation of hazardous induction into telecommunication
This guide sets out the technical issues and implications for
nearby telecommunication network plant of various cable sheath
bonding arrangements for high voltage power cables between
substations. The impacts of cable sheath bonding on both power
earthing system earth potential rise (EPR) and on induction into
parallel telecommunication circuits, and the consequential impact on
nearby telecommunication plant, are outlined.
A range of cable sheath bonding systems is outlined together with
an explanation of the impact of cable sheath bonding on nearby
telecommunication installations as well as on the power network. The
advantages and disadvantages of cable sheath bonding are described
and a process for the calculation of earth potential rise and
transferred earth potential rise for earth mats bonded together is
included to assist in determining the most appropriate arrangement
for specific cases under study.
Guidance is included to assist in determining when more detailed
studies or computer modelling is appropriate to reach a conclusion.
This guide is supplied with a companion paper "Fundamentals of
Calculation of Earth Potential Rise in the Underground Power
Distribution Cable Network" which provides detailed guidance on the
use of the symmetrical components method of analysis to calculate EPR and transferred EPR (TEPR) in a power cable network (see
Fundamentals of Calculation of EPR in the Underground Power Distribution Cable Network
||Companion paper by Ashok Parsotam (1997)
||Included with the Cable Sheath Bonding Application Guide
with the Cable
Sheath Bonding Application Guide
This paper is a companion paper to the NZCCPTS Application Guide
for Cable Sheath Bonding.
This paper provides a detailed outline of how to calculate the
fault currents and earth potential rise that will result when a high
voltage cable between two substations has its sheath bonded to the
substation earth mat at each end.
The fundamentals of how to calculate earth potential rise (EPR)
in an underground power distribution network are presented in some
detail. The objective is to enable engineers with a basic knowledge
of power system analysis to further develop their skills and
understanding of EPR calculations in a typical distribution network.
The calculation of sequence impedances to model overhead lines
and underground cables and calculate the Earth Potential Rise in the
cable network, is presented in some detail, to enable a Power
Systems Engineer to understand and design cost effective earth
This paper can be treated as a guide or a reference document for
calculating the fault currents in a distribution network. Several
fault scenarios were modelled. For each model a numerical example
outlining all steps required to calculate EPR is also provided.
The equations given in this document can also be used for
calculating line and cable series impedance parameters required by
PTI's Power System Simulator (PSS/U) and most other load flow and
short circuit analysis software packages.
The methods and the models presented in this paper are such that
they can be readily applied to practical situations by a Power
Systems Engineer using a basic scientific hand calculator.
||Guide for Investigating
and Mitigating Power System - Telecommunication System Noise Interference
This guide provides information on the causes and characteristics
of power system disturbing current phenomena and presents guidelines
for systematically investigating and mitigating cases of reported
power noise interference to telecommunication systems.
Descriptions and explanations are included on a range of
disturbing current phenomena, which can arise in parts of the power
system, and of conditions in which significant interference to the
quality and performance of telecommunication systems can result.
Suggestions are included to assist with interpreting observations
and measured data to help engineers achieve a clear understanding of
the possible causes and sources of noise in the case under
investigation, so that the most appropriate mitigation can be
Cost Apportioning Guide
Apportioning Principles for the Mitigation of Hazards and/or
Interference Between Power and Telecommunication Networks (2002).
This guide sets down principles for determining the apportionment
of costs between power and telecommunication network operators when
cases of EPR hazard, induction hazard or interference to
telecommunication networks require investigation and remedial
action, and incur expenditure by either or both parties.
The principles are aimed at achieving resolution of issues by
agreement, thus avoiding costly litigation.
Cable Separations Guide
between Buried Power and Telecommunication Cables (2003)
This brief document (8 pages) provides industry guidelines on the
minimum separations that should apply between buried power and
telecommunication cables. The standard minimum separations are
summarised in a table. Application Rules are also included to
explain how to apply these minimum separations, and what exceptions
to the minimum separations are permitted.
A discussion paper explaining the reasons behind these minimum
separations is included as an Appendix.
|Guide for Evaluating and Addressing Adverse Interactions between Power and Telecommunications Systems (2014)
This guide provides a broad overview of Power Coordination. It attempts to tie together and put into context all the relevant NZ legislation, NZCCPTS Guides, AS/NZS standards, EEA standards and other relevant international standards, as well as filling in some of the Power Coordination gaps not covered by all these other standards.
The guide describes Power Co-ordination as a process to identify, analyse and, where necessary, mitigate adverse interactions between Power and Telecommunications networks. The adverse interactions covered in this guide include:
- Hazard to humans.
- Damage to telecommunications network plant and telecommunications network customers’ plant.
- Mal-operation, or substandard operation, of telecommunications cable network circuits.
- Corrosion of metallic telecommunications network plant in direct contact with the ground.
As well as providing references to all the relevant NZCCPTS Guides, AS/NZS standards, EEA standards and other relevant international standards, this guide also includes the following Power Coordination details:
- Description of the power, telecommunications and rail networks in New Zealand.
- Description of the mechanisms of adverse interactions, including details of:
- Assumed minimum insulation levels of different telecommunications network cable types.
- Typical minimum insulation levels of customer’s mains-powered telecommunications equipment.
- Power Coordination issues with aerial and buried fibre optic cables.
- Power Coordination expertise required.
- Methods of determining impressed EPR and induced voltage levels.
- The need for noise interference issues to be handled in a ‘reactive’ rather than ‘predictive’ manner.
- Relevant planned changes to the Chorus cable network, that will affect its future exposure to Power Coordination hazard and noise.
- Summary of relevant Power Coordination legislation.
- Use of Risk Assessments to demonstrate compliance with the relevant Electricity (Safety) Regulation on Power Coordination hazards.
- Power Industry mitigation options.
- Telecommunications Industry mitigation options.
- Detailed Power Coordination reference list.
This guide will be updated from time to time to reflect progress and advancement of current legislation, codes of practice, international standards and other industry documentation.
This guide is currently available from this website as a free PDF download.